domenica 23 dicembre 2018

sabato 15 dicembre 2018

e ancora un altro:)))

Chart Polski : breed standard – commentaries
The general impression of the polish sighthound is that of a robust, working dog, i.e. that the correct specimen should be strong, well muscled and boned. Neither the word “elegant” nor “subtle” are appropriate in describing this sighthound, which was once capable of hunting wolves and deer.
However, the polish sighthound cannot be heavy and stocky. Its general appearance remains a lot of a bigger and heavier saluki, though some differences can be easily seen. The polish sighthound is slightly rectangular – its body length is somewhat bigger than its height at withers. The dog should not be too long, as this usually results in a weak back. Correct length to height ratio enables to efficient and true action. The head of a perfect polish sighthound should be long, lean and narrow. Its typical characteristics are : big and distinctly pointed nose and “roman” muzzle profile (dropping nose). Head planes are not fully parallel. The most common faults are : too narrow and weak underjaw, apple-domed skull, deep frontal furrow, too pronounced cheeks and lack of balance between skull and muzzle. The pigmentation should follow coat colour. When it is diluted (i.e. blue or fawn), the pigmentation is also blue or fawn, respectively. In case of a very pale ivory colour, the nose might be also extremely light. However, pink or spotted (butterfly) nose is definitely faulty. Eyes are rather large, almondshaped, oblique and generally similar to those of saluki, yet the expression is distinctly sharp. Both too small and large, round eye is faulty. The neck is long, strong and well muscled. It is set lower than this of a greyhound, but higher than that of a borzoi. So called “ewe neck”, usually accompanied with upright shoulder, is a common fault with the breed. Quite often, inexperienced handlers tend to pose their dogs with heads carried as high as possible, what is definitely wrong.
The withers of the polish sighthound are only slightly pronounced and they are never as distinct as those of an afghan hound. The topline is slightly arched in loins. Sometimes this arch is too strong, and this fault usually goes together with lack of angulation both in front and hindquarters. Perfectly level topline can be seen with some bitches, and is not considered faulty. The chest must be deep, and it is not too flat – too flat and too shallow chest is a common fault. This happens often when a growing youngster has not been provided with
good exercise. The sternum is rather long, but sometimes it is too short, almost as short as that of an azawakh. In such case both the shoulder and the upper arm are too straight. Tail is usually carried low and may be even hanging loose. When the dog is moving, its tail is carried higher and forms a sabre or a ring. No matter how high is the end of the tail, its base should be always in line with the back – otherwise the tail is faulty. The tail is well feathered with longer, dense and harsh coat. Featherings cannot be long and soft. The muscles of the polish sighthound are not as fleshy as those of a greyhound – they are very dry and flat. This is typical of a long distance runner. The hindquarters are – when viewed from behind – rather narrow, both in stance and in action. With increased speed, its action is distinctly single-tracked. This single track is a typical characteristic of the breed, and should never be considered faulty. The coat differs the breed from other sighthounds – it is dense and harsh, with good undercoat. Its length varies on different parts of the body. The coat should not resemble that of a greyhound or a borzoi.
Malgorzata and Izabella Szmurlo

un altro articolo

This text is based on « Historia naszej kynologii – Rasy Polskie » (History of our Cynology – Polish Breeds), a book which was brought out to mark the 50th anniversary of the Kennel Club in Poland. “Polish breeds” is published by the Polish Kennel Club (Warszawa 2000) F. et Ph. Duponcheel-Vandenbussche

Polish greyhound

The breed is likely to originate from the ancient Asian Saluki Sighthound, however, its final appearance is an outcome of many crosses of sighthound types found in the Polish territory.

The oldest records on the sighthounds living in the territory of Poland date back to Gall Anonim’s Kroniki (Chronicles) of the 12th century, where they are mentioned as a breed kept at the royal court. One cannot be sure, though, if these were the Polish sighthounds. In the Poland of 14th century, hunting with sighthounds was a quite popular activity. In “Ksiegi o gospodarstwie” (Books on Farming) by Piotr Crescentyn published in 1549, a woodcut of a dog resembling a Polish sighthound was included. In the years to follow, the dogs were frequently described but the first full characteristic of the breed was provided by Anzelm Gostomski in his book “Gospodarstwo Jezdeckie, Strzelcze and Mysliwcze” (A Horse Riding, Shooting and Hunting Farm) published in 1690. The first description of a hunt with Polish sighthounds is included in “Myslistwo z ogary” (Hunting with Ogars) published in 1618 by count Jan Ostrorog. Shorthaired sighthounds are also mentioned by Jan Chryzostom Pasek (1636-1701) in his “Pamietniki” (Memoirs). As the documents show, the dogs of this breed were in the possession of tsarevicz Nikolai Nikolaiewicz, too. In the hunting literature of 19th century, the name of “the Polish sighthound” or “our sighthound” or “a common sighthound” is frequently mentioned. The dog was supposed to be larger, stronger and with slightly longer hair than the English Greyhound. The Polish sighthound was used to hunt different game, mainly hare but also foxes, wolves and even deer. When hunting, the old time hunters would often apply the so called “leash” i.e. two or three cooperating sighthounds on the move. A detailed description of the Polish Sighthound including information on its upbringing, training for hunting, hunting methods as well as the dog’s picture can be found in a Warsaw magazine “Sylvan” (1823 – 2). The writing of this first real monograph on the breed is attributed to Wiktor Kozlowski.
A few artists of the 19th century portrayed dogs of the Polish sighthound type in their painting, including J. Kossak, J. Brandt and A. Wierusz-Kowalski ; sketches of the dogs by J. Norblin and I. Siemienski are preserved as well. With the impoverishment of the Polish nobility, confining hunting with sighthounds to large game  preserves only and levying high taxes on sighthound owners, the number of Polish sighthounds continually declined. At the end of the 19th century, the dogs could be hardly spotted. They managed to survive in the Eastern part of the country and the Ukraine, where they were bred under the name “chortaia borzoia” or “polskaia borzaia”. The dogs are mentioned by S. Biezobrazow in a Russian encyclopaedia published in 1891, St. Rewinski in Encyklopedia Rolnicza (Encyclopaedia of Agriculture) (1899), in the period between the two World Wars, by M. Trybulski in his book entitled “Psy. Rasy, hodowla, tresura I leczenie” (Dogs, Breeds, Breeding, Training and Treatment) published in 1928 and I. Mann in his book “Rasy psow. Pochodzenie, wzorce, uzytkowosc” (Dog Breeds, Their Origin, Standards and Utility) dated 1939. In the Southern region of Poland, Polish sighthounds were used for hunting as long as the outbreak of the Second World War.

In 1971, Maciej Mroczkowski managed to obtain information about Polish sighthounds living in the territory of the USSR, in the Rostov region. After the October Revolution, the dogs were moved from large private land estates to collective farms where, thanks to their hunting qualities, they were pure bred. In 1972, Maciej Mroczkowski placed in a popular Przekroj weekly an article about the sighthounds from Poland nowadays domiciled in Ukraine and used for hare hunting by the soviet hunters. According to soviet dog fanciers, the dogs numbered from several dozen to several hundred specimens. In view of the game law banning hunting with sighthounds which, at that time, was about to be introduced in the USSR, the dogs faced extermination. Maciej Mroczkowski’s article included an appeal addressed to the Przekroj readers asking for help to recreate the breed in Poland. Luckily, the price for a dog was relatively low – one dog could be purchased by as little as 30-40 rubels. Fifty readers responded, including Stanislaw Czerniakowski from Warsaw who managed to purchase and bring to Poland two bitches named Tajga and Strielka as well a dog called Elbrus. Tajga and Elbrus became parents of the first puppies born in Poland. The first breeders of Polish sighthounds, Malgorzata and Izabella Szmurlo and Helena Jenczyk-Tolloczko,  put in their efforts to obtain the dogs who survived in the South of Poland. It was quite a tough task, though, because admitting to owning a sighthound automatically meant admitted to poaching hunting with sighthounds in Poland is forbidden by law. Polish sighthounds used to have many enemies, but also a large group of canine specialists who favoured the breed. Commitment to popularise the breed was made by among others Hanna Lipinska, a group of judges, including
Lubomir Smyczynski, Kazimierz Sciesinski and the re-discoverer of the breed, Maciej Mroczkowski. Owners of the first pedigree Polish sighthounds must be mentioned as well – by presenting their dogs at shows they made it possible for everybody to get familiar with the breed. Based on the relevant literature and iconography, Hanna Lipinska and Malgorzata Szmurlo developed a draft standard of the breed. On opening the Polish Greyhound’s Pre-register Book in 1981, 30 dogs were enrolled. The same number of dogs entered the 1st Polish Greyhound National Specialty Show which was held in Poznan in 1981 and during which three generations of the dogs were exhibited. A year later, the Pre-register Book included as many as 60 dogs. The breed received a preliminary approval of FCI at the Federation General Congress held in Helsinki in 1989. The Polish Greyhound breed standard is listed under the number 333, it is not eligible for CACIB yet. A year later, first dogs of the Polish Greyhound breed were exhibited at the international show in Switzerland. Because of the ban on hunting with sighthounds, the dogs are not used for hunting purposes any longer, nevertheless, they are very popular with track racing and coursing. When running, the Polish sighthound is as speedy as the English Greyhound but even more enduring.  The top breeders of the Polish sighthound are Malgorzata and Izabella Szmurlo whose “Celerrimus” Kennel excels in the number of pedigree puppies. The ladies promote the breed inside and outside the country ; they are the authors of many specialist articles on the breed as well as of the monograph “Chart Polski” (The Polish Sighthound) published in 1993. Other outstanding kennels include “Od Charciarza”, “Z Wielgowa”, “Ranbaza”, “Czereda Kusego”, “Ksenas” and others. The Polish Sighthound aroused much interest in the USA, Finland, Belgium, France, The Netherlands, Germany and Denmark, where first litters have already been reported. Individual specimens have been sent to Canada and Sweden. In 1984, the Polish Greyhound Club was set up ; similar clubs operate in France, Belgium and USA. The Chart Polski has been officially recognised on a definitive basis (decision of the FCI Standards and Scientific Commission – Paris – January 2001). From March 1st 2001 the Chart Polski is entitled to get the CACIB in any international FCI dog show.

venerdì 14 dicembre 2018

in breve....

Françoise Vandenbussche In 1972, Maciej Mroczkowski placed in a popular Przekroj weekly an
article about the sighthounds from Poland nowadays domiciled in Ukraine and
used for hare hunting by the soviet hunters. According to soviet dog fanciers, the

dogs numbered from several dozen to several hundred specimens. In view of the
game law banning hunting with sighthounds which, at that time, was about to be
introduced in the USSR, the dogs faced extermination. Maciej Mroczkowski’s
article included an appeal addressed to the Przekroj readers asking for help to
recreate the breed in Poland. Luckily, the price for a dog was relatively low –
one dog could be purchased by as little as 30-40 rubels. Fifty readers responded,
including Stanislaw Czerniakowski from Warsaw who managed to purchase and
bring to Poland two bitches named Tajga and Strielka as well a dog called
Elbrus. Tajga and Elbrus became parents of the first puppies born in Poland.

Interessante articolo sul Chart Polski

Chart Polski

 This text is based on the article of M. and I. Szmurlo in “Polish Heritage” (Soft Vision Oficyna Wydawnicza – Poland 2000).

F. et Ph. Duponcheel-Vandenbussche

Chart Polski

 Chart Polski or polish sighthound is one of the oldest breeds of hunting dogs. It originates from oriental sighthounds and shows many features in common with the present day saluki, e.g. featherings, colours and cranial properties, as revealed by detailed anatomical studies.  Sighthounds and hunting with them was popular in Poland as long ago as in the 12th century. The oldest polish chronicles mentioned that large sums of money were spent by nobles on sighthounds, and the dictionary of medieval Polish language quotes as many as 300 words, relating to those dogs. The first description of a sighthound, however, is more recent and dates from 1600. According to its author, Gostomski, a good sighthound “should have powerful loins, nicely arched ; lean quarters, compact feet, head like that of a pike, sickle shaped tail and smooth coat”.  Hunting itself was described in “Hunting with hounds” by Jan Ostrorog (1608) and versificated “The Hunter” by Bielawki (1595). By that time the breed had been already quite well established. A theory of its origin was put forward by Xavier Przezdziecki in his book “Le destin des Lévriers” (1984) :  “In the same time when greyhounds in England were selected to developing extreme speed on relatively short distances to catch hare, the Poles were selecting their sighthounds to be capable of chasing their prey – hares, foxes, wolves and bustards – in vast, dry steppes. Polish sighthound was supposed to show strength, endurance, stamina and versatility to some extend.” One has to remember, that Poland at that time covered large parts of present day Ukraine.  Polish sighthound cannot have descended from greyhound or Russian borzoi, as none of those had been known in the area when the local breed had been developed. Borsois were brought to Russia not earlier than in 1556, when Ivan the Terrible conquered Cossacks and Mongolian tribes. On the other hand, when Prince Nicolai Nicolaievitsch visited dog show in Paris in 1895, “La Nature”, reporting that visit, wrote on his sighthounds : “… These short-coated sighthounds originated from Poland and were brought into Russia with the troops of The False Demetrius, invading the country in 1505. These dogs are larger and more robust than greyhounds and their coat is distinctly longer.”

 Numerous remarks on the breed can be found in Polish hunting literature. It must have been well known, as it is usually referred to as “common”, “ordinary” or just “chart”, whereas other sighthounds were always accurately named.. among the most popular breeds Kozlowski (1823) listed : Turkish sighthound, also known at egyptian, italian, scottish and the ordinary, or polish one, which is rather hairy. According to this author, Scottish and polish breeds were not very different. Belke (1848) describing italian greyhound of those days, wrote that it is much smaller than our ordinary breed. Generally, polish sighthound was described as tall and strong, though there were considerable differences concerning its coat. Bobiatynski stated that it was short coated, while some other authors claimed it long coated or “hairy”. To quote Tyszkiewicz (1881) : “There are two varieties of polish sighthounds, both short coated, yet one can be distinguished by moustache, beard and cloak, which the dog bristles, when in good mood.”  The best description remains that by Kozlowski in “Sylwan” : “A well made (polish) sighthound is tall, what means 3 feet and 6 inches from its toe tip to its top of head, and its length from nose to tail tip is 4 feet and 2-3 inches. Its head is small and flat, with well marked back skull, muzzle long, slightly convex and by no mean snipey, should resemble that of a pike and open wide, with strong and sharp teeth to catch prey. Eyes clear, ears short, narrow and semidropped. Trunk long and slender, well muscled. It was good breast, long withers, back broad and somewhat arched, distinct waist. Legs long and lean, well muscled, thighs short, second thighs thin and sinewy, pasterns short, toes compact and arched. Tail is long, tapering to its end and sickle shaped. Coat of different colours, one can find fawn with white throat, pure white, black, dappled and dun.”  Russian authors, writing on sighthounds and hunting, obviously distinguished between polish and other varieties. In fact, Sabanyeiev (1892) left such a detailed description, that it can be still regarded as standard. Motchevanov (1873) claimed polish sighthound similar to greyhound, but taller and heavier.  Many paintings of the 19th century show sighthounds, which are extremely uniform in type. Moreover, they still look very much alike the sighthound painted by von Westerfelt on several occasions about 1651. That dog, belonging to Prince Radziwill, was tall, short coated, yet with some featherings. The best known paintings are these by Juliusz Kossak. According to Lipinska, who had carried out a detailed study (1979), dogs painted by Kossak “… were tall, strong and muscular, size 75 cms and more. Proportions : height and length approximately equal. Head narrow, skull to muzzle ratio 1:1, distinct stop, ears similar to those of greyhound. Neck long, well muscled, no arch. Topline nicely arched and this arch reaches its highest point closer to withers than what we see in English greyhounds, croup gently sloping, broad, chest
deep and long with well sprung ribs (…) Tail long, sickle shaped, with longer feathers, coat somewhat longer on buttoks.  Hunting with sighthounds was very popular, not only in Ukrainian steppes, but virtually in any area, except for mountains and deep forests. Hare was a common prey in Central Poland, but hunting wolves in Podole brought greatest excitement. Two dogs were used to catch hare, while three would do to capture a wolf and keep it alive for the hunter. Polish sighthounds were – and still are – more obedient than other sighthounds, and usually ran free by horses, going for prey on command and coming back, when called with horn.  By the end of the 19th century, following enclosures and decline of large estates, at least in Central Poland, hunting with sighthounds and their population had gradually decreased. Even bigger decline was to come after the First War. Only few sighthounds kennels remained, most of them in Podole and Ukraine. A few years later new game law restricted hunting with sighthounds to grounds of at least 10000 acres and that meant an ultimate end for dogs. The last refuge for them in central part of the country were two estates near Kielce. In Olesno, belonging to the Niemojewskis, this form of hunting was preserved as long as till the outbreak of the Second World War. Their dogs were distinctly smaller than those in Ukraine, as they hunted hare and fox in hilly areas. To quote Woyniewicz (1938) : “Who has not heard of the late Sergiusz Niemojewski and his son Konrad (…) Their estate well known for different hunting events, was especially famous for hunting with sighthounds, so carefully preserved and still traditionally ruled. It is a pity, that such events can rarely be seen nowadays, as this tradition has almost entirely vanished.”  Dogs were kennelled in braces, sometimes in trios. They were halloed only 2-3 times during one game, on returning rubbed with water and alcohol and relaxed on the following day.  The war and the years after it resulted in extinction of estates and dogs. New boundaries left Podole and Ukraine to the former Soviet Union. In Central Poland, however, some dogs survived and were kept by poachers. According to new game law, hunting with sighthounds became entirely forbidden. Any dog, which showed but the slightest resemblance to a sighthound could be (and usually was) shot on the spot. Poachers have selected deliberately their dogs and kept them pure, as no other dogs could excel them in chasing hare. In fact, keeping pure-bred sighthounds has become a family tradition in the area, even though it has been continued in total conspiracy. Dogs were kept in cellars and attics, and never been seen by strangers. No wonder they have been almost forgotten, yet it is possible that some may still exist.  The first attempt to rescue the breed came in 1972, when dr Mroczkowski (himself a renowned Sealyham terrier breeder) published a letter in the popular weekly magazine “Przekroj”. He wrote that his Russian friends informed him there was a sighthound breed in the area of Rostov (Ukraine), known as “chortaia borzaia”. At that time the breed was in danger of extinction and was
commonly regarded as last survivors of polish sighthounds. The letter was accompanied with a photo of typical dog, not different to those, painted by Kossak. Over 50 people reacted, claiming their interest in purchasing such dogs, yet only one, Mr Czerniakowski, persevered in his idea and eventually went to Ukraine, where he purchased two bitches – Tajga and Strielka -, and one male – Elbrus -. Later he bred one litter (Elbrus – Tajga) and we bought our first bitch – Daria – from that litter. Soon after Mr Czerniakowski, badly disappointed with the attitude of the Kennel Club, gave his dogs away and did not continue breeding.  Apparently the Polish Kennel Club did not show any interest in breed restitution, and refused its registration. Moreover, all official statements denied any identity of chortaia borzaia and polish sighthound. Due to political circumstances at that time, it was impossible to carry out original plans. Luckily, we had already been well aware of poachers’dogs and decided to purchase some. The task was definitely not an easy one, as poachers were obviously suspicious. Eventually, though, we were able to purchase few typical specimens and place them in new homes. Meanwhile, Daria was bred to her father and produced the first litter to our “Celerrimus” kennel, where we have bred 29 litters since. The second litter out of Daria was by Misiek, purchased from poachers. Those dogs, together with some others, later brought from Ukraine or found in the country, formed a nucleus for further breeding. However, it was not until 1981, when the Kennel Club changed its attitude and established register for the breed under its present name. The provisional standard had already existed and it was accepted by FCI in 1989. Up to now, regretfully, the breed is not given full recognition and cannot be awarded CACIB (*).  The popularity of polish sighthounds remains restricted. Game law entirely prohibits hunting with them and – like most sighthounds – they are too demanding to be kept solely as pets. Polish sighthounds can be successfully trained for racing, where they can compete even with greyhounds. No other sighthound breed excel polish sighthound in coursing – this competition perfectly fits their agility and endurance. Personality of polish sighthound is somewhat different to that of other sighthounds – they show distinct guarding and protective instinct and can be successfully trained in obedience.  Our “Celerrimus” kennel remains the only one, which has been actively involved in breeding for years, while others have bred occasional litters only. Currently the breed is known and bred in many European countries, as well as in the USA and Canada.

Malgorzata and Izabella Szmurlo

(*) From March 1st 2001, the Chart Polski is entitled to get the CACIB in any       international FCI dog show.

mercoledì 5 dicembre 2018


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